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During this time Australia and New Guinea were joined as a single land mass called Sahul.The south-east Asian continent and islands were also joined as a single land mass called Sunda.However, Smith rejects both concepts of archaeological science because neither emphasize falsification or a search for causality.However, in almost all cases of archeometric research, scientists from the natural sciences assist in the scientific analysis of archeological artifacts.Australian archaeology is a large sub-field in the discipline of archaeology.Archaeology in Australia takes three main forms, Aboriginal archaeology (the archaeology of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia before and after European settlement), historical archaeology (the archaeology of Australia after European settlement) and maritime archaeology.There is consensus that no human or closely related species evolved independently in Australia.This is because there have been no species of primate found in Australia, either in the present or in the fossil record.
At a research level the focus shifted to cultural change of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people through time.Archaeological science, also known as archaeometry, consists of the application of scientific techniques to the analysis of archaeological materials, to assist in dating the materials. Martinón-Torres and Killick distinguish ‘scientific archaeology’ (as an epistemology) from ‘archaeological science’ (the application of specific techniques to archaeological materials).Martinón-Torres and Killick claim that ‘archaeological science’ has promoted the development of high-level theory in archaeology.Archaeometrists have used a variety of methods to analyze artifacts, either to determine more about their composition, or to determine their provenance.These techniques include: Lead, strontium and oxygen isotope analysis can also test human remains to estimate the diets and even the birthplaces of a study's subjects.
Initial archaeological investigation was often focused on finding the oldest sites.